Ice Cube on a String {Learning about Freezing Point Depression}

IMG_0127It’s been a few days since I posted a new experiment. I hope you’ve been experimenting without us! We’ve been busy preparing for Ruby’s dance recital… and I’ve been resting my pregnant body. This sudden summer heat is taking a lot out of me!

That’s why we decided to do something quick, easy, and COLD. This is a fun experiment that can be turned into a party game. You’ll stump a lot of people when you ask them to get an ice cube out of a glass with only a salt shaker and piece of string – no touching allowed.

 

Ice Cube on a String

Materials:

  • A full cup of cold water
  • Ice cube(s)
  • 1′ long length of string (we used butcher twine from the kitchen drawer)
  • Table salt

Procedure:

  1. IMG_0962Place your ice cube in the cup of cold water. Make sure the water is cold, so that the ice cube doesn’t melt too quickly before you even begin. We learned that through our first failed attempt!
  2. Lay your string carefully across the top of the cup, making sure it has good contact with your ice cube.
  3. Pour salt over the ice cube and string.
  4. Wait a few seconds and grab the ends of your string. Your ice cube and string will have frozen together and voila! You have an ice cube on a string!

 

The Science:

IMG_0964Ice is frozen water. When liquid water reaches 32 degrees Fahrenheit or 0 degrees Celsius, it becomes ice, a solid. That means the freezing point for water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit.

However, when you add salt (a solute) to the water (a solvent), you create a solution, which is two substances mixed together. The salt and water solution must get even colder to freeze into ice, than just plain water alone. This is called freezing point depression. With a 10% salt (and 90% water) solution, it must be 20 degrees Fahrenheit or -6 degrees Celsius to freeze. With a 20% salt (and 80% water) solution, it must be even colder at 2 degrees Fahrenheit or -16 degrees Celsius. Brrrr! As nice as that sounds on a hot, humid summer day like today, that’s reeeeeally cold! Frostbite cold!

IMG_0966If you’ve ever been to or lived up north, you may have seen big salt trucks driving around pouring salt onto icy patches of road or sidewalks. That’s because when the salt mixes with the ice on the ground, it melts. Many people think that the salt somehow heats up the ice and melts it, but that’s not the case! As we talked about above, the salt just lowers the freezing point for the water, converting it back into a liquid instead of allowing it to stay frozen as solid ice. It should be noted that salt can’t melt solid ice directly – it must be mixed with water and then applied to the ice. However, most ice and snow is actually covered in a thin layer of water, so when you apply salt on top, nature has already helped you create your salt water solution with no effort needed from you!

For this specific experiment, the salt lowers the melting point of the water that’s been frozen into the ice cubes. Because there’s so little salt and so much water, the salt doesn’t do a very good job of lowering the freezing point for long, so the water quickly freezes back  into solid ice, trapping your string in the process.

Let me know if you try this experiment – or better yet, if you challenge your friends to figure out how to make it work! We plan on trying to stump a couple of our friends with it this week!

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5 Science Gifts for Tiny Toddler Scientists

Birthday party season is upon us! For some reason, a large cluster of the Science Kids’ friends were born in the spring/summer. I feel like we spend most of our weekends during this time attending birthday parties of the kids we love!

And what else would the Science Mom give, but science? (Dinosaurs, actually. We are kind of known for always including something dinosaur-related. But that’s still science, right?) I keep these bookmarked on Amazon Prime, so they’re ready to be ordered, tossed in a gift bag (along with a book and possibly a dinosaur or two), and head out to a friend on their special day!

So, without further ado, here’s my list of my five favorite, fun science gifts to give our tiny scientist friends!

Please note that some of the links included are affiliate links. That means that if you follow the link and purchase something, I earn a small commission for my recommendation. This support helps keep my resources free and is much appreciated, so please consider using the link if you decide to purchase something from one of my posts!

1. GeoSafari Jr. My First Microscope

At under $20, this little “microscope” is a fun way to introduce science equipment to little scientists.

It features 2.5-8x magnification, which is more like a magnifying glass and obviously significantly less than a standard microscope. However, that’s why I like this microscope for toddlers. At these lower magnifications with a larger field of view, little brains can begin to understand how microscopes work and what they’re looking at.

It also features an LED light, and non-skid feet to keep it in place. Its chunky design is also great for little hands to still be able to manipulate it independently.

On a personal note, I gave my daughter and her best friend both this microscope for Christmas two years ago. I’ve been surprised by how durable it is, in part thanks to its plastic lenses. My kids are not delicate and it’s surviving just beautifully! They’ve both been having fun looking at leaves, dead bugs, their hands, and random household items.

2. Primary Science Binoculars

For around $13, this is a really adorable pair of binoculars for little bird watchers and nosy toddlers.

I love the chunky design here too. Combined with the rubber eye pieces, plastic lenses, and textured grips, it is really designed for little hands to hold and use independently. I also like that the neck strap is a breakaway design.

The binoculars have a 6x magnification, which is, again, just the perfect amount for them to begin to understand the concept of using binoculars and also what they are actually looking at.

My daughter has taken her pair all over the place, from road trips to the park to local music events.

3. Learning Resources Primary Science Lab Set

Coming in under $20, this lab set is probably my favorite thing to gift little scientists. The pieces in this set are “iconic” science, right?

This 12-piece set includes everything they need to start exploring the lab world, including a beaker, magnifying glass, funnel, eyedropper, flask, tweezers, goggles, and test tubes! It also comes with activity cards to inspire both them and the adults helping them.

Again, the chunky design of these tools makes them ideal for little scientists to work semi-independently and feel like they’re in control of their own experiments. While they’re plastic and kid-friendly in every way, they’re still functional and we routinely use them in our experiments at home!

If you’re looking for something more, there’s also a 45-piece deluxe lab set that expands to include more lab equipment and a ViewScope. Learning Resources also makes a kid-sized lab coat that’s at the top of my daughter’s wish list!

My First Mind Blowing Science Kit

I mean, who isn’t excited when they see the title of this science kit? Mind blowing! And for only $15!

It’s packed with fun goodies to conduct a variety of science experiments and introduce STEM principles, including things like test tubes and a pipette, as well as chemicals like red cabbage powder, citric acid, and baking soda. There are some household items you’ll need to supplement the kit, so check the list before you plan to get started.

This kit definitely requires some adult supervision and assistance, but you definitely don’t need to be a scientist to help. Adults will have as much fun as their little scientists with activities like a sunset in a tube, a color-changing volcano, and jiggly crystals.

5. Boley Big Bucket of Dinosaurs

At around $15, this 40-piece dinosaur set provides lots of fun play for budding little paleontologists.

This set combines realistic-looking (not cartoony, like so many sets) dinosaurs and landscape pieces that encourage a lot of imaginary play, but can also open the door for lots of educational questions and talk about dinosaurs.

We’ve had this set in our house for over two years now and the figures have held up really well to almost daily play. I also like that it comes with a storage bucket, so they’re not all over the place. That being said, we did convert our train table into a dinosaur landscape for a while, thanks in part to some of the landscape pieces that come in this bucket. It was a lot of fun to see my daughter’s imagination at work as we constructed it!

Do you have a go-to science gift that didn’t make my list? Leave me a comment!

Making It Rain {Learning About the Water Cycle}

IMG_0127Another day, another project as we experiment our way through the summer! We hope you’re joining us – or at least getting tempted to.

You can, of course, follow our experiments here, but also on the Science Mom Facebook page! You can also find other fun experiments on the Science Mom Pinterest boards or scrolling through this summer series here on the blog!

FullSizeRender 2Today, I decided to use Mother Nature for inspiration. After all, the radar was looking like this. Bah! The forecast kept getting pushed back further and further, but we skipped our trip to the splash pad anyway. Who needs a splash pad when you’re getting wet in your own kitchen and backyard, right?

I decided on not one, not two, but three projects today, as a splash pad apology to my toddler. I’m still not sure she forgave me for missing out on the fun with her best friend, Jax, but we had fun anyway!

 

Making It Rain, Part One

Materials:

  • A shallow dish (or any kind of pan, tray, bowl, or water-holding vessel)
  • Cotton balls
  • Water

Procedure:

  1. IMG_0310Fill your water-holding vessel with water. An inch or so should do it.
  2. Take a cotton ball “cloud” to explore. Note that the cotton ball is fluffy and doesn’t weigh much. It’s also very dry.
  3. Slowly, dip the cotton ball “cloud” into the water, allowing the water to slowly soak the cotton ball. Now your cloud is filled with rain-to-be. Note that it feels heavy and may have even changed shapes.
  4. Lift the cotton ball out of the water. The cotton ball is so saturated that water droplets will begin to fall back into the water-holding vessel. The more saturated, the faster the rain drops fall.
  5. Explain that this is [roughly] how the water cycle works. Not sure how the water cycle works exactly? No worries. Read on!

 

Making It Rain, Part Two

Materials:

  • Clear cup or jar (plastic or glass is fine)
  • Shaving cream
  • Water
  • Food coloring

Procedure:

  1. IMG_0315Fill your cup with water, leaving a small space at the top for your shaving cream.
  2. On top of the water, squirt shaving cream to create a nice, fluffy “cloud”.
  3. Carefully add drops of food coloring to the top of your shaving cream cloud.
  4. As the cloud gets heavier with the added food coloring, it will slowly begin to “rain” food coloring down into the cup. (Make sure you’re adding the food coloring slowly. Once it makes its way through the shaving cream, it will spread through the water quickly. If you’ve added too much, the water will rapidly change color and the experiment gets decidedly boring instantly!)

 

Making It Rain, Part Three

Materials:

  • Large glass jar (or bowl or measuring cup)
  • Paper plate or bowl large enough to cover the opening of the glass container
  • Water
  • Ice cubes

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Procedure:

  1. Heat water, either in the microwave or bring to a boil on the stovetop. (I recommend that a parent take care of this step and warn little hands that the glass jar will be hot hot hot!
  2. Transfer the water to your glass jar.
  3. Quickly, top the jar with a paper plate. Cover the plate with a pile of ice cubes.
  4. Watch as a mini water cycle emerges inside your glass jar!

 

The Science:

Rain is just one small part of the water cycle, the really awesome loop that Earth’s water has been traveling through from the ground to the sky and round and round again for billions of years. Water is never really “still”, even when it’s not actively going through the water cycle. Most of Earth’s water is stored in our oceans (roughly 96.5% of it, or 321,000,000 cubic miles) and we know the ocean is never still!

Water-Cycle-Art2A_mediumTo explain the water cycle to kids, it’s easiest to break it down into four stages: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and collection.

Let’s start with evaporation. That’s when the sun heats up collected water, which turns it into water vapor (a gas that we usually can’t see). This is how water begins its journey from the ground back up into the atmosphere. There are a couple of other ways that water can leave the ground. One of those ways is sublimation, which is when solid water (ice or snow) is heated and turns directly into water vapor. This is the process you see when dry ice turns into a big cloud of water vapor, or directly from a solid into a gas, without making a pitstop and becoming a liquid. (To be clear, this is not like when ice melts and turns into water and then eventually would evaporate into water vapor!) Another way that water evaporates is through transpiration, which is basically plant sweat! Water travels from the soil, through the plant roots, and transpires (sweats) through the plants’ leaves to become water vapor and head up into the atmosphere. It’s estimated that about 10% of the water in Earth’s atmosphere is from plant transpiration.

The next stop for all of that water vapor is condensation. As water vapor moves higher and higher into the atmosphere, it finds colder air. That colder air turns the water vapor back into a liquid. Those cooling water molecules find tiny particles in the air (like dust, smoke, or dirt) to cling to and form cloud droplets (very, very tiny drops of condensed water), which collect and grow to form clouds (this part of the process can be called coalescence). You see condensation all the time. When you pour a cold drink into a glass, you may see condensation form on the outside. That’s warm water vapor from the air around your glass being cooled by your drink and turning into water droplets. Your glass is kind of your own personal cloud!

As the cloud grows and gets heavier, we prepare for precipitation. The condensed water falls back to the ground in the form of rain, hail, snow, or sleet. This is no small task, as it takes millions of those little cloud droplets to collide and form a single rain drop. Once a rain drop is formed, it then has to have enough velocity to make it out of the cloud and fall as precipitation! In a really heavy rainstorm, the drops are falling at a speed of 24 feet per second – that’s a little over 16 miles per hour. There are some parts of the world where hardly any rain at all falls (less than 0.1 inches per year) and some where tons and tons of rain falls (900 inches per year). There’s a place in Chile where no rain (none!) fell for 14 years! 14! Rain is a pretty incredible thing when you stop and think about it all, right?

After the rain falls, the next stage is collection. That’s where the water settles here on Earth. Like I said before, about 96.5% of Earth’s water is stored in the oceans. The rest of that water (3.5%) is what we have in the atmosphere, lakes, ice caps and glaciers, rivers, streams, puddles, and everywhere else in the world! That really gives you an idea of the huge volume of water in the ocean.

And just like that, we are looping our way back through the water cycle. There are tons of other fun experiments and projects to learn more about it… and we will definitely revisit all of this again soon! For now, it’s time to check our rain gauge one last time and call it a [rainy] night!

I’ll leave you with one last thought. The water that you’re taking a bath in tonight could be the very same water that a dinosaur bathed in too. RAWR!

 

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Sandwich Bag Blasts {Learning About Acids and Bases}

IMG_0127Today marked our first project, as we experiment our way through the summer. We hope you’re joining us!

If you’re spending your summer with science, let us know on social media or in the comments section here. We’d love to hear about other families’ experimental summers!

These sandwich bag blasts were our version of celebratory fireworks this afternoon. Lucy (daughter #2) is currently in utero and there were concerns about her cerebellum development at our anatomy scan. Today, our MFM specialist gave her a clean bill of health and released us back to my regular OB-GYN. It’s a major weight off of our shoulders, so we were thrilled to celebrate the news with some backyard explosions! BANG BOOM POP HOORAY! BABY LUCY IS OKAY!

 

Sandwich Bag Blasts

Materials:

  • Zip lock sandwich bag
  • Paper towel
  • Baking soda (1-1/2 tbsp)
  • Vinegar (1/2 cup)
  • Warm water (1/4 cup)

 

Procedure:

  1. Check your sandwich bag for holes. If it’s not water-tight, you won’t get that magnificent BANG that young scientists crave. You can check it by filling it with water and shaking it around to spot leaks – or just rely on your eyesight to identify any holes.
  2. Rip your paper towel into a 6″ square (roughly, into quarters).
  3. Pour 1-1/2 tbsp of baking soda into the middle of one paper towel square.
  4. Fold up the paper towel, so the baking soda is safely nestled inside a pocket.
  5. Add the 1/2 c of vinegar and 1/4 c of warm water to the sandwich bag.
  6. Quickly, add the paper towel pocket into the sandwich bag and seal it. Emphasis on quickly.
  7. Shake, shake, shake your bag to get the reaction really going.
  8. Set down your sandwich bag, step back, and watch it swell, before BANG! The bag pops and you can call yourself the Sandwich Bag Bomb Squad.

 

 

The Science:

Almost all liquids can be qualified as either an acid or a base. Acids produce more hydrogen  (H+) ions when added to water, which deems them more acidic. Meanwhile, bases produce more hydroxide (OH-) when added to water, which deems them more, you guessed it, basic. You can thank chemist Svante Arrhenius for this classification system!

Acids (the ones with more hydrogen ions) have a sour taste and can even dissolve other materials (we call that “corrosive”). In fact, the word acid is derived from the Latin word acidus, which means “sour”. The best example of an acid is our own stomach acid, that helps us break down the foods we eat.

Bases (the ones with more hydroxide ions) can have a bitter taste and tend to be on the more slimy (think: icky) side. We also call bases “alkali” because they are “alkaline” (not acidic). An example of a base would be soap – the soap we wash our bodies with and even laundry or dish soap!

Acids-and-Alkalis-The-pH-ScaleAll of these liquids have a place within the pH scale, which ranges from 0-14. Strong acids make up the lower part of the scale (0-4), while strong bases make up the higher part of the scale (10-14). In the middle of the pH scale is 7, which is “neutral” and is neither acidic or basic. The best example of a neutral is water

Both very acidic and very basic liquids can be equally dangerous, so it’s best to work with items within the middle of the PH scale when we do experiments like this! Professional chemists use those strong acids and bases to create big reactions in chemistry labs, so if you like explosions and reactions, you might have found your future major or career!

In this particular experiment, the vinegar (acid) and baking soda (base) cause a chemical reaction that produces carbon dioxide. That carbon dioxide fills the bag and, after running out of room to continue expanding, pops the bag open with our thrilling BANG!

 

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Experiment Your Way Through the Summer

It’s summer time, which means many afternoons spent soaking in the sun in our backyard. It just so happens that the backyard is the perfect science lab for young scientists!

IMG_0127We’ll be working our way through some of my favorite toddler-friendly science experiments this summer and sharing our successes (and failures) on the blog. Hopefully, we’ll inspire you to join in and share your favorites with us on social media or in the comment sections here on the blog!

Not sure where to start? Have no fear. Check out The Science Mom’s Pinterest boards for age-appropriate experiments or head to your local bookstore for fun books of science experiments. You can find a lot of your supplies at the local dollar store! I stopped into ours this morning and got approximately 10 experiments’ worth of supplies for less than $20. Many of the items will be things you have (or will use) around the house anyway. Want something with less room for error? Head to Amazon or your local toy store for a prepackaged “science kit” with directions and supplies ready to go.

Stay tuned for posts with our experiment schedule, book recommendations, and kit suggestions to get you started!

 

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